Both violent surveillance and disease risk were integral to Atlantic slavery. That same war against Black people continues today.
Julia Gaffield is associate professor of history at Georgia State University. She is the author of Haitian Connections in the Atlantic World: Recognition after Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 2015). She is writing a biography of Jean-Jacques Dessalines (under contract with Yale University Press) and recently published “The Racialization of International Law after the Haitian Revolution: The Holy See and National Sovereignty,” in the American Historical Review.